Eishockey wm teams

eishockey wm teams

Mai Eishockey-WM Der Kader von Deutschland steht fest. Welche Spieler fürs Hier gibt es den Kader des DEB-Teams im Überblick. 3. Mai Bei der Eishockey-WM in Dänemark kämpfen 16 Teams um den Titel. sportschau .de lotet die deutschen Chancen aus, erklärt den Modus und. Mai Weißrussland ist bei der Eishockey-WM in Dänemark nach 14 Jahren in der Als erste Teams für das Viertelfinale qualifizierten sich. Durch Olympia-Silber www.togo.de spile er zum Held: Die Turnier-Favoriten Bei den vergangenen sechs Weltmeisterschaften spiel casino book of ra je zweimal Gold an die Mannschaften aus Kanada, Schwedenund Russland Die Vorrunde der Weltmeisterschaft startete am 4. Korea Sud Südkorea B. Sie musste damit gefährliche online casinos nach der Strukturierung der Divisionen in zwei emoji weihnachten Gruppen im Jahr die A-Gruppe verlassen. Korea Sud Südkorea M. Die Slowakei als Leipzig gegen monaco der Weltmeisterschaft kann dabei nicht absteigen. Nun tour de france online sich das Gesicht des Teams ändern. Die ersten ing diba depot gebühren Mannschaften einer jeden Gruppe qualifizieren sich für die Viertelfinalpartien, die im Kreuzvergleich ausgetragen werden. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die deutsche Eishockey-Auswahl kommt in Form. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Dan BylsmaDon Granato. Februar in Sarajevoder Hauptstadt von Bosnien und Herzegowinaausgetragen. April im spanischen Granada ausgetragen. Einst verschmähten die Eishockeystars aus Übersee Weltmeisterschaften, jetzt kommen sie in Scharen. Die Spiele fanden im 4. Wie ist der Modus? Sie können die Einbettung auf unserer Datenschutzseite deaktivieren. April in der südafrikanischen Metropole Kapstadt ausgetragen. Das Turnier der Top-Division mit 16 Nationalmannschaften findet vom Die Spiele fanden in der Zuschauer fassenden Igloo Arena statt. Mai, beendet wird die Vorrunde elf Tage später am Deutschland bekommt es unter anderem wieder mit den beiden Teams aus Nordamerika zu tun. Gruppe B, , 16 - Schweiz 4. Die Partie findet am Korea Sud Südkorea M. Die Gesamtanzahl der Spiele beträgt 64 Partien. Vereinigtes Konigreich Brett Perlini. Die Spiele finden in der

Eishockey wm teams -

Zum ersten Mal findet eine Weltmeisterschaft in Dänemark statt. Mercedes schlägt Vettel zurück zur t-online. Die Niederlande , die im Vorjahr aus der Division I abgestiegen waren, stiegen mit fünf Siegen aus fünf Spielen unangefochten wieder auf — alle Spiele konnten mit mindestens fünf Toren Unterschied bei einem Torverhältnis von Gruppe B, , 16 - Schweiz 4. Russland — Kanada 4: In der Vorrunde verloren beide Teams nur ein Spiel. Bei Punktgleichheit entscheidet der direkte Vergleich.

However, during the latter tournament, the Czechoslovak team defeated the Soviets 7—2. It was one of the biggest margins the Soviet team had ever lost by in an official game.

On the opening day of the tournament, Poland defeated the Soviet Union 6—4 thanks to a hat-trick from forward Wieslaw Jobczyk and the goaltending of Andrzej Tkacz.

It was one of the biggest upsets in international hockey history; two months earlier at the Winter Olympics , Poland had lost 16—1 to the Soviets.

The Soviets lost two more games and won the silver, and Czechoslovakia won gold. Poland finished seventh and was relegated to Pool B, the division in which teams play for ranking purposes and not the championship now known as Division I.

The IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships, and moved the competition to later in the season so players not involved in the NHL playoffs could participate.

The IIHF also agreed to endorse the Canada Cup , a competition meant to bring together the best players from the top hockey-playing countries. The World Ice Hockey Championships in Katowice were the first to feature professionals although in the end only the United States made use of the new rule, recalling eight pros from the Minnesota North Stars and Minnesota Fighting Saints.

Many of the players on the Canadian team were not prepared for the tournament and were unfamiliar with the international game.

The team finished fourth, losing both games to the Soviet Union by a combined score of 19—2. Czechoslovakia won gold, becoming the third team after Canada and the Soviet Union to win consecutive championships.

As a result of these events, full world championship status was given to the IIHF World Under Championship , which had been held annually since as an unofficial invitational tournament.

Colloquially known as the World Junior Hockey Championship, the event was structured after the World Championships, but limited to players under the age of It usually does not involve some of the top North American-based players because they are involved in junior league playoffs at the time.

Starting in , the Soviet team won five consecutive World Championships, and had an unbeaten streak that lasted from through the Winter Olympics and until World Championship tournaments were not held in , or —the Olympic years.

The World Championships in Vienna were over-shadowed by several controversies. At the beginning of the tournament, the roster of the West German team included Miroslav Sikora, a Polish-German forward who had previously played for Poland at the World Under Championship.

Sikora became a naturalized citizen of West Germany and played in the first three games, scoring a goal in a 3—1 win over Finland. Following the game, Finland launched a protest, demanding that the result be over-turned because the Germans had used an ineligible player.

At the time, players were not allowed to switch nationalities under any circumstances and the IIHF agreed to overturn the result and award the two points to Finland.

This angered German officials, who filed a protest in an Austrian court. The court agreed with the Germans, overturning the IIHF decision and allowing them to keep their points.

The result affected the final standings because had the IIHF's decision stood, Finland would have advanced to the medal round instead of Sweden.

The tournament format also became controversial because the Soviet Union finished undefeated in the preliminary round but the Swedish team, which had lost three games in the preliminary round, won on goal differential because of a 9—0 win over Canada in the medal round.

Before , players that lived in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and other nations behind the Iron Curtain were not allowed to leave and play in the NHL.

Soviet officials agreed to allow players to leave if they played one final tournament with the national team.

Players agreed to this, and the Soviet Union won its 21st World Championship. It was the final championship the Soviet team would win.

In , Swedish forward Mats Sundin —the first European player to be drafted first overall in the NHL —led his team to the gold medal.

The Soviets won bronze—the last medal the team would ever win. The Soviet Union dissolved in December Nine former soviet republics became part of the IIHF and began competing in international competitions, including Belarus , Kazakhstan , Latvia and Ukraine.

Russia was named the successor to the Soviet Union. With this flood of new teams, the IIHF expanded the number of spots from eight to twelve. The Soviets won a medal in every tournament they participated in to Finland won the silver medal, the nation's first ever World Championship medal the Finnish team had previously won a silver at the Winter Olympics.

Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in January Slovakia 's team began in the lowest division Pool C in and was forced to work its way up.

At the World Championships , Russia won its first title as an independent nation and the Czech Republic won its first medal bronze.

During this period, the United States was the only one of the "Big Six" not to win the World Championship, [13] although they did win the World Cup of Hockey [77] and their bronze at that year's World Championship was their first medal since In the mids, several new teams such as Slovakia, Latvia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine were quickly improving and older nations such as Austria, France, Italy, Norway and Switzerland were at risk of being relegated to Pool B.

The IIHF feared that it would lose advertising revenue if that happened, so the number of teams was increased to 16 starting in From to , the Czech Republic won six consecutive World Championship medals, including World Championship gold from to , as well as gold at the Winter Olympics.

In the gold medal game between Russia and Slovakia, Slovakian Peter Bondra scored in the final two minutes of the game and the nation won its first ever World Championship.

Canada's Anson Carter scored the winning goal 13 minutes into play, but the goal had to be reviewed for ten minutes to determine if the puck had crossed the line.

The —05 NHL season was locked out , and eventually cancelled , because of a labour dispute between the league and the players.

They became the first team to win Olympic gold and a separate World Championship tournament in the same year. Russia defeated the home team to win their first gold medal since The tournament took place in Germany.

The first game, between Germany and the United States, was played at Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen and was attended by 77, people, setting a new record for the most attended game in hockey history.

Switzerland beating Canada for the first time in World Championship play; [93] Norway defeating eventual champions the Czech Republic; [94] and Denmark upsetting Finland and the United States en route to their first ever quarterfinal appearance.

In the gold medal game, the Czech Republic defeated the Russian team, winning gold. The tournament was held in independent Slovakia for the first time.

Finland won its second world championship with a victory over Sweden. The Czech Republic won the bronze medal over Russia. The tournament was held in Sweden and Finland.

Russia beat Slovakia in the final, while the Czech Republic beat Finland in the bronze medal game. In , Switzerland finished the preliminary round undefeated before losing the gold medal game 5—1 to co-hosts Sweden.

Switzerland's silver medal was the first for the nation since Sweden's gold made them the first team to win the tournament at home since the Soviet Union in The was held for the first time in independent Belarus in spite of concerns of the human rights abuses perpetrated by the authoritarian government.

France has beaten Canada for the second time in the modern history and made it to the quarterfinals. Eventual finalist Finland lost to Latvia and made it to the quarterfinals only due to a shootout win over Switzerland.

The tournament was won by Russia which had a stacked NHL squad compared to other teams who sent in younger players after the Winter Olympics , Finland won silver and Sweden won bronze defeating the Czech Republic.

However, the tournament was dominated by an excellent Canadian team, which went undefeated and beat Russia in the gold medal match.

Its captain, Sidney Crosby joined the Triple Gold Club , becoming the first player to achieve that honour as captain of each winning team. The bronze was won by the United States, leaving the Czechs with a second consecutive fourth place.

The first World Championship to be held as an individual event was in Twelve different nations participated. Canada's team was given a bye to the gold medal game, and the rest of the nations played an elimination tournament to determine which nation would also play for the gold.

In , the World Championships switched to a similar format to what was used at the Olympics. Ten teams played series of round-robin format qualifying rounds were played to determine which nations participated in the medal round.

In , the tournament format was again switched to being similar to the version used at the Olympics. A preliminary round involving 11 teams was played, then the top four advanced to the medal round and medals were awarded based on points; no gold medal game was played.

A gold medal game was played in ; it was the last gold medal game played in the World Championships until Generally eight teams played in the top-level Championship, although the number varied over the years, going as low as three in and as high as twelve in The same format was used until Pool C games were first played in and Pool D was introduced in The modern format for the World Championship features a minimum of 40 teams: From to , the teams were divided into four groups and played each other in a round robin format preliminary round, and the top 3 teams in each group advance into the qualifying round.

The qualifying round is another round of group play with two groups of six, with the top four teams in each group advancing into the knockout playoff stage.

The bottom four teams in the preliminary round played in another group as well; this group determined relegation.

After a round-robin format, the bottom two teams were usually relegated to play in Division I the following year. Between and , the IIHF held a "Far East" qualifying tournament for Asian teams with an automatic berth in the championship division on the line.

Japan always won this tournament, but finished last at every World Championship except in , when they finished 15th.

The main group features 16 teams. The 16 teams are split into two groups based on their world ranking. The ranking is based on the standings of the last Winter Olympics and the last four World Championships.

The results of more recent tournaments have a higher weight in the ranking. The Olympic tournament has the same value as the World Championship the same year.

Beginning with the tournament, the qualifying round will be eliminated, and the 16 teams will be divided into two groups of eight, with each team playing seven games in the preliminary round.

The top four teams from these groups will advance to the knockout playoff stage. In the quarterfinals, the first place team from one group plays the fourth place team from the opposite group, and the second place team from one group plays the third place team from the opposite group.

The winners advance to the semi-finals. In cases where the quarter-final venues are deemed too far apart to allow easy travel between them, the teams stay within their groups for the quarters.

The winners of the quarter-finals advance to the semi-finals, with the winners of the semi-finals advancing to the Gold medal game and the losers advancing to the Bronze medal game.

Also starting in , there will no longer be a relegation round. Instead, the eighth-place team in each group will be relegated to Division I.

Division I is split into two groups of six, both groups play in round robin tournaments independent of each other and the championship division.

Previously the top team from both groups was promoted to the championship, while the bottom team was relegated to Division II.

Beginning in , the top two teams from the 'A' group will be promoted to the championship, the bottom team will be exchanged with the group 'B' winner, and that group's last place team will go down to Division II.

Division III is now composed of one group of six, and if more than six nations register for this, the lowest level, then a qualification tournament will be held.

At the first tournament in , there were many differences from the modern game: Prior to that, body-checking was only allowed in the defending zone in international hockey.

The IIHF later described the rule change as "arguably the most substantial and dramatic rule changes in the history of international hockey" because it allowed for a more aggressive game.

Prior to that, the neutral zone trap had slowed the game down and reduced scoring. At the World Championships, teams were allowed to decide if they wanted to test the rule.

Although no team accepted the offer, the rule was adopted. The IIHF described it as "the most revolutionary rule change since allowing body-checking in all three zones in As of the regular NHL season , a linesman stops play due to icing using the hybrid icing method, [] instead of the former method, where a defending player other than the goaltender touched the puck before an attacking player was able to, [] in contrast to the IIHF rules that use "no-touch" icing, where play is stopped the moment the puck crosses the goal line.

The NHL, in addition to the minor and double minor penalties called in IIHF games, calls major penalties which are more dangerous infractions of the rules, such as fighting, and have a duration of five minutes.

Beginning with the —06 season , the NHL instituted several new rules. Some of them were already used by the IIHF, such as the shootout and making the two-line pass legal.

The system was first used at the World Championships. The World Championships have been open to all players, both professional and amateur, since If a player who has never played in an IIHF competition changes their citizenship, they must participate in national competitions in their new country for at least two consecutive years and have an international transfer card ITC.

A player can only do this once. As this tournament takes place during the same time period as the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs , NHL players generally only become available if their respective NHL team did not make the playoffs, or once they have been eliminated from Stanley Cup contention.

It is therefore common for several NHL players to join the World Championships while the tournament is already in progress. The Championship division comprises the top sixteen hockey nations in the world.

The 82nd championship was held from 4 to 20 May , in Copenhagen and Herning , Denmark. The IIHF recognizes Bohemia , which joined in , and Czechoslovakia as the predecessors to the Czech Republic, which officially became a member in Division I comprises twelve teams.

Division II comprises twelve teams. The IIHF recognizes Yugoslavia, which joined in , as the predecessor to Serbia, which officially became a member in Division III is usually made up of two groups of ten teams.

The qualification teams compete for promotion to Division III. Current division if no window is coloured, country doesn't play in any competition in the current year.

Voted on by the tournament directorate, the first awards recognised the top goaltender, forward and defenceman. There is also an all-star team voted on by members of the media.

In , Canadian Dany Heatley became the first player to lead in scoring, win the MVP award, win the best forward award and be named to the all-star team in the same year.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see IHWC disambiguation. A gold medal awarded at the Championships. Ice hockey at the Olympic Games.

Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 31 January International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 10 March Canada's Royal Winter Game": Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 25 April The New York Times.

Within certain restrictions, players may redirect the puck with any part of their body. Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone.

Players are also prohibited from kicking the puck into the opponent's goal, though unintentional redirections off the skate are permitted.

Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands. Hockey is an " off-side " game, meaning that forward passes are allowed, unlike in rugby.

Before the s hockey was an on-side game, meaning that only backward passes were allowed. Those rules favoured individual stick-handling as a key means of driving the puck forward.

With the arrival of offside rules, the forward pass transformed hockey into a truly team sport, where individual performance diminished in importance relative to team play, which could now be coordinated over the entire surface of the ice as opposed to merely rearward players.

The six players on each team are typically divided into three forwards, two defencemen, and a goaltender.

The term skaters is typically used to describe all players who are not goaltenders. The forward positions consist of a centre and two wingers: Forwards often play together as units or lines , with the same three forwards always playing together.

The defencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. Left and right side wingers or defencemen are generally positioned as such, based on the side on which they carry their stick.

A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when shorthanded or on a power play.

The goaltender stands in a, usually blue, semi-circle called the crease in the defensive zone keeping pucks from going in. Substitutions are permitted at any time during the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change.

When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly. A new NHL rule added in the —06 season prevents a team from changing their line after they ice the puck.

The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Players are permitted to " bodycheck " opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress.

The referees, linesmen and the outsides of the goal are "in play" and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced by either bouncing or colliding into them.

Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption.

When play is stopped, it is restarted with a " faceoff ". Two players "face" each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck.

Markings circles on the ice indicate the locations for the faceoff and guide the positioning of players. The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: A player is "offside" if he enters his opponent's zone before the puck itself.

Under many situations, a player may not "ice the puck", shoot the puck all the way across both the centre line and the opponent's goal line.

The puck goes "out of play" whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink onto the player benches, over the "glass," or onto the protective netting above the glass and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles.

It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

Under IIHF rules, each team may carry a maximum of 20 players and two goaltenders on their roster. NHL rules restrict the total number of players per game to 18, plus two goaltenders.

In the NHL, the players are usually divided into four lines of three forwards, and into three pairs of defencemen. On occasion, teams may elect to substitute an extra defenceman for a forward.

The seventh defenceman may play as a substitute defenceman, spend the game on the bench, or if a team chooses to play four lines then this seventh defenceman may see ice-time on the fourth line as a forward.

A professional game consists of three "periods" of twenty minutes, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends after each period of play, including overtime.

Recreational leagues and children's leagues often play shorter games, generally with three shorter periods of play. Various procedures are used if a tie occurs.

In tournament play, as well as in the NHL playoffs, North Americans favour sudden death overtime , in which the teams continue to play twenty-minute periods until a goal is scored.

Up until the — season regular season NHL games were settled with a single five-minute sudden death period with five players plus a goalie per side, with both teams awarded one point in the standings in the event of a tie.

With a goal, the winning team would be awarded two points and the losing team none just as if they had lost in regulation.

From — until —04, the National Hockey League decided ties by playing a single five-minute sudden death overtime period with each team having four skaters per side plus the goalie to "open up" the game.

In the event of a tie, each team would still receive one point in the standings but in the event of a victory the winning team would be awarded two points in the standings and the losing team one point.

The idea was to discourage teams from playing for a tie, since previously some teams might have preferred a tie and 1 point to risking a loss and zero points.

The only exception to this rule is if a team opts to pull their goalie in exchange for an extra skater during overtime and is subsequently scored upon an "empty net" goal , in which case the losing team receives no points for the overtime loss.

Since the —16 season, the single five-minute sudden death overtime session involves three skaters on each side. Since three skaters must always be on the ice in an NHL game, the consequences of penalties are slightly different from those during regulation play.

If a team is on a powerplay when overtime begins, that team will play with more than three skaters usually four, very rarely five until the expiration of the penalty.

Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.

Once the penalized team's penalty ends, the number of skaters on each side is adjusted accordingly, with the penalized team adding a skater in regulation and the non-penalized team subtracting a skater in overtime.

This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from 99—00 — 03—04 followed by a penalty shootout.

If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.

After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.

Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.

In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.

Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season. In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties.

If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added. In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.

In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off.

Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team. In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the " penalty box " and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.

Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.

A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player. This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking.

Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.

The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing "short-handed" while the opposing team is on a " power play ". A two-minute minor penalty is often charged for lesser infractions such as " tripping ", " elbowing ", " roughing ", " high-sticking ", " delay of the game ", " too many players on the ice ", " boarding ", illegal equipment, " charging " leaping into an opponent or body-checking him after taking more than two strides , "holding", holding the stick grabbing an opponent's stick , "interference", " hooking ", " slashing ", "kneeing", "unsportsmanlike conduct" arguing a penalty call with referee, extremely vulgar or inappropriate verbal comments , "butt-ending" striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty , "spearing", or " cross-checking ".

As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for " diving ", where a player embellishes or simulates an offence.

More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.

These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.

Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a "minor" penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.

Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team.

Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.

The foul of "boarding" defined as "check[ing] an opponent in such a manner that causes the opponent to be thrown violently in the boards" [57] is penalized either by a minor or major penalty at the discretion of the referee, based on the violent state of the hit.

A minor or major penalty for boarding is often assessed when a player checks an opponent from behind and into the boards.

Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the NHL usually result from fighting.

In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice.

This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.

In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.

However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.

In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.

In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent at the officials' discretion , or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties.

The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".

In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.

In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties. A " penalty shot " is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a " breakaway ".

A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.

A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.

Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one's hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offences.

The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one's defensive zone all penalized two minutes for delay of game.

In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.

This will result in a two-minute penalty against the goalie's team. Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.

An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass ".

Prior to the —06 NHL season, play was stopped when a pass from inside a team's defending zone crossed the centre line, with a face-off held in the defending zone of the offending team.

Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away. The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.

Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.

The governing body for United States' amateur hockey has implemented many new rules to reduce the number of stick-on-body occurrences, as well as other detrimental and illegal facets of the game "zero tolerance".

In men's hockey, but not in women's, a player may use his hip or shoulder to hit another player if the player has the puck or is the last to have touched it.

This use of the hip and shoulder is called " body checking ". Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.

A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.

In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.

Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.

In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on. However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net.

If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.

In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.

There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs, [59] and one or two referees , [60] who call goals and all other penalties.

Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations.

On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers. The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system," that uses one referee and two linesmen.

Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system. This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes.

With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system," where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.

Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.

In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.

Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Since men's ice hockey is a full contact sport, body checks are allowed so injuries are a common occurrence.

Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet cage worn if certain age or clear plastic visor can be worn , shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.

Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.

Goaltenders' equipment has continually become larger and larger, leading to fewer goals in each game and many official rule changes.

Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability. This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction.

In addition, they must be rigid and tough to protect the skater's feet from contact with other skaters, sticks, pucks, the boards, and the ice itself.

Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.

The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft. The curve itself has a big impact on its performance.

A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots. The flex of the stick also impacts the performance.

Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.

It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck. Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game.

Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury. Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulders, hips, and hockey pucks all contribute.

The types of injuries associated with hockey include: Women's ice hockey players can have contact but are not allowed to body check.

Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.

According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey]. Most of these injuries are caused by player contact, falls and contact with a puck, high stick and occasionally, a skate blade.

Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".

Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".

A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.

The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.

Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.

This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention. Studies show that, ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare, but occur all too much in a variety of sports.

An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.

Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck.

The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.

Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.

Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game. Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.

NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.

Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.

A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.

A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions.

Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice. Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.

A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.

However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone.

Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i. Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.

The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.

Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.

A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.

A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.

Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.

At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.

A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit.

The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.

Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.

After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.

In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.

Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.

The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.

Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.

Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.

There are two major women's hockey leagues, the National Women's Hockey League with teams in the Northeastern United States which is a professional league and the Canadian Women's Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States, which is semi-professional and is developing toward becoming a fully professional league.

The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada. Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams.

As of , there are six teams, although the teams themselves have changed. The league consists of five teams, though it had four teams for the league's first three seasons.

The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world. The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League.

The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.

A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.

This created a 21 team league. It comprises 30 teams from the United States and Canada, and will expand to 31 teams for the —19 season.

The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level. In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.

Players in this league are strictly amateur, so that they may play college hockey if they wish. The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.

The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states.

The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia.

The number of teams has since increased to 28 from eight different countries. This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan.

The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia. It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia.

Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues. Beginning in the —15 season, the Champions Hockey League was launched, a league consisting of first-tier teams from several European countries, running parallel to the teams' domestic leagues.

The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship.

In the final game, Canada defeated the Soviets 5—1 to win their nineteenth gold medal. The Trail Smoke Eaters became the final club team to represent Canada.

The following year, Canada implemented a national team program, led by Father David Bauer. Canada would not win another world championship gold until The tournament was held in Denver , United States, and was boycotted by the Soviet and Czechoslovak teams.

Sweden defeated Canada for the first time in the history of the competition and won their third gold medal. At the World Championships in Stockholm, the Soviet Union won the gold medal, beginning a streak of nine consecutive World Championship golds.

The Winter Olympics in Innsbruck , Austria marked the first time that Canada failed to win an Olympic medal in hockey. The Soviet Union won all seven of their games and the gold medal, but Canada finished the tournament with five wins and two losses, putting them in a three-way tie for second place with Sweden and Czechoslovakia.

Prior to , the tie-breaking procedure was based on goal difference from games against teams in the medal round and under that system, Canada would have placed third ahead of the Czechoslovaks.

The procedure had been changed to count all games and that meant the Canadians finished fourth. The Soviets dominated the remainder of the decade.

Following , the team went undefeated in Olympic and World Championship competition for four years. Their streak was broken by Czechoslovakia at the Winter Olympics.

Despite the loss, the Soviets still won gold. They won both of their games 2—0 and 4—3 but despite these wins, the Czechoslovaks lost both of their games to Sweden and won bronze.

With European teams using their best players who are de facto professionals, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association CAHA felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive and pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues.

The rights to host the tournament were awarded to Canada for the first time—in Montreal and Winnipeg. IOC president Avery Brundage was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together and said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made.

In response, Canada withdrew from International ice hockey competition. At the World Championships in Prague, the Czechoslovak team ended the Soviet team's streak and won their first gold since However, during the latter tournament, the Czechoslovak team defeated the Soviets 7—2.

It was one of the biggest margins the Soviet team had ever lost by in an official game. On the opening day of the tournament, Poland defeated the Soviet Union 6—4 thanks to a hat-trick from forward Wieslaw Jobczyk and the goaltending of Andrzej Tkacz.

It was one of the biggest upsets in international hockey history; two months earlier at the Winter Olympics , Poland had lost 16—1 to the Soviets.

The Soviets lost two more games and won the silver, and Czechoslovakia won gold. Poland finished seventh and was relegated to Pool B, the division in which teams play for ranking purposes and not the championship now known as Division I.

The IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships, and moved the competition to later in the season so players not involved in the NHL playoffs could participate.

The IIHF also agreed to endorse the Canada Cup , a competition meant to bring together the best players from the top hockey-playing countries.

The World Ice Hockey Championships in Katowice were the first to feature professionals although in the end only the United States made use of the new rule, recalling eight pros from the Minnesota North Stars and Minnesota Fighting Saints.

Many of the players on the Canadian team were not prepared for the tournament and were unfamiliar with the international game.

The team finished fourth, losing both games to the Soviet Union by a combined score of 19—2. Czechoslovakia won gold, becoming the third team after Canada and the Soviet Union to win consecutive championships.

As a result of these events, full world championship status was given to the IIHF World Under Championship , which had been held annually since as an unofficial invitational tournament.

Colloquially known as the World Junior Hockey Championship, the event was structured after the World Championships, but limited to players under the age of It usually does not involve some of the top North American-based players because they are involved in junior league playoffs at the time.

Starting in , the Soviet team won five consecutive World Championships, and had an unbeaten streak that lasted from through the Winter Olympics and until World Championship tournaments were not held in , or —the Olympic years.

The World Championships in Vienna were over-shadowed by several controversies. At the beginning of the tournament, the roster of the West German team included Miroslav Sikora, a Polish-German forward who had previously played for Poland at the World Under Championship.

Sikora became a naturalized citizen of West Germany and played in the first three games, scoring a goal in a 3—1 win over Finland.

Following the game, Finland launched a protest, demanding that the result be over-turned because the Germans had used an ineligible player.

At the time, players were not allowed to switch nationalities under any circumstances and the IIHF agreed to overturn the result and award the two points to Finland.

This angered German officials, who filed a protest in an Austrian court. The court agreed with the Germans, overturning the IIHF decision and allowing them to keep their points.

The result affected the final standings because had the IIHF's decision stood, Finland would have advanced to the medal round instead of Sweden. The tournament format also became controversial because the Soviet Union finished undefeated in the preliminary round but the Swedish team, which had lost three games in the preliminary round, won on goal differential because of a 9—0 win over Canada in the medal round.

Before , players that lived in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and other nations behind the Iron Curtain were not allowed to leave and play in the NHL.

Soviet officials agreed to allow players to leave if they played one final tournament with the national team. Players agreed to this, and the Soviet Union won its 21st World Championship.

It was the final championship the Soviet team would win. In , Swedish forward Mats Sundin —the first European player to be drafted first overall in the NHL —led his team to the gold medal.

The Soviets won bronze—the last medal the team would ever win. The Soviet Union dissolved in December Nine former soviet republics became part of the IIHF and began competing in international competitions, including Belarus , Kazakhstan , Latvia and Ukraine.

Russia was named the successor to the Soviet Union. With this flood of new teams, the IIHF expanded the number of spots from eight to twelve. The Soviets won a medal in every tournament they participated in to Finland won the silver medal, the nation's first ever World Championship medal the Finnish team had previously won a silver at the Winter Olympics.

Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in January Slovakia 's team began in the lowest division Pool C in and was forced to work its way up.

At the World Championships , Russia won its first title as an independent nation and the Czech Republic won its first medal bronze.

During this period, the United States was the only one of the "Big Six" not to win the World Championship, [13] although they did win the World Cup of Hockey [77] and their bronze at that year's World Championship was their first medal since In the mids, several new teams such as Slovakia, Latvia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine were quickly improving and older nations such as Austria, France, Italy, Norway and Switzerland were at risk of being relegated to Pool B.

The IIHF feared that it would lose advertising revenue if that happened, so the number of teams was increased to 16 starting in From to , the Czech Republic won six consecutive World Championship medals, including World Championship gold from to , as well as gold at the Winter Olympics.

In the gold medal game between Russia and Slovakia, Slovakian Peter Bondra scored in the final two minutes of the game and the nation won its first ever World Championship.

Canada's Anson Carter scored the winning goal 13 minutes into play, but the goal had to be reviewed for ten minutes to determine if the puck had crossed the line.

The —05 NHL season was locked out , and eventually cancelled , because of a labour dispute between the league and the players.

They became the first team to win Olympic gold and a separate World Championship tournament in the same year. Russia defeated the home team to win their first gold medal since The tournament took place in Germany.

The first game, between Germany and the United States, was played at Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen and was attended by 77, people, setting a new record for the most attended game in hockey history.

Switzerland beating Canada for the first time in World Championship play; [93] Norway defeating eventual champions the Czech Republic; [94] and Denmark upsetting Finland and the United States en route to their first ever quarterfinal appearance.

In the gold medal game, the Czech Republic defeated the Russian team, winning gold. The tournament was held in independent Slovakia for the first time.

Finland won its second world championship with a victory over Sweden. The Czech Republic won the bronze medal over Russia.

The tournament was held in Sweden and Finland. Russia beat Slovakia in the final, while the Czech Republic beat Finland in the bronze medal game.

In , Switzerland finished the preliminary round undefeated before losing the gold medal game 5—1 to co-hosts Sweden. Switzerland's silver medal was the first for the nation since Sweden's gold made them the first team to win the tournament at home since the Soviet Union in The was held for the first time in independent Belarus in spite of concerns of the human rights abuses perpetrated by the authoritarian government.

France has beaten Canada for the second time in the modern history and made it to the quarterfinals. Eventual finalist Finland lost to Latvia and made it to the quarterfinals only due to a shootout win over Switzerland.

The tournament was won by Russia which had a stacked NHL squad compared to other teams who sent in younger players after the Winter Olympics , Finland won silver and Sweden won bronze defeating the Czech Republic.

However, the tournament was dominated by an excellent Canadian team, which went undefeated and beat Russia in the gold medal match.

Its captain, Sidney Crosby joined the Triple Gold Club , becoming the first player to achieve that honour as captain of each winning team.

The bronze was won by the United States, leaving the Czechs with a second consecutive fourth place. The first World Championship to be held as an individual event was in Twelve different nations participated.

Canada's team was given a bye to the gold medal game, and the rest of the nations played an elimination tournament to determine which nation would also play for the gold.

In , the World Championships switched to a similar format to what was used at the Olympics. Ten teams played series of round-robin format qualifying rounds were played to determine which nations participated in the medal round.

In , the tournament format was again switched to being similar to the version used at the Olympics. A preliminary round involving 11 teams was played, then the top four advanced to the medal round and medals were awarded based on points; no gold medal game was played.

A gold medal game was played in ; it was the last gold medal game played in the World Championships until Generally eight teams played in the top-level Championship, although the number varied over the years, going as low as three in and as high as twelve in The same format was used until Pool C games were first played in and Pool D was introduced in The modern format for the World Championship features a minimum of 40 teams: From to , the teams were divided into four groups and played each other in a round robin format preliminary round, and the top 3 teams in each group advance into the qualifying round.

The qualifying round is another round of group play with two groups of six, with the top four teams in each group advancing into the knockout playoff stage.

The bottom four teams in the preliminary round played in another group as well; this group determined relegation.

After a round-robin format, the bottom two teams were usually relegated to play in Division I the following year. Between and , the IIHF held a "Far East" qualifying tournament for Asian teams with an automatic berth in the championship division on the line.

Japan always won this tournament, but finished last at every World Championship except in , when they finished 15th. The main group features 16 teams.

The 16 teams are split into two groups based on their world ranking. The ranking is based on the standings of the last Winter Olympics and the last four World Championships.

The results of more recent tournaments have a higher weight in the ranking. The Olympic tournament has the same value as the World Championship the same year.

Beginning with the tournament, the qualifying round will be eliminated, and the 16 teams will be divided into two groups of eight, with each team playing seven games in the preliminary round.

The top four teams from these groups will advance to the knockout playoff stage. In the quarterfinals, the first place team from one group plays the fourth place team from the opposite group, and the second place team from one group plays the third place team from the opposite group.

The winners advance to the semi-finals. In cases where the quarter-final venues are deemed too far apart to allow easy travel between them, the teams stay within their groups for the quarters.

The winners of the quarter-finals advance to the semi-finals, with the winners of the semi-finals advancing to the Gold medal game and the losers advancing to the Bronze medal game.

Also starting in , there will no longer be a relegation round. Instead, the eighth-place team in each group will be relegated to Division I.

Division I is split into two groups of six, both groups play in round robin tournaments independent of each other and the championship division.

Previously the top team from both groups was promoted to the championship, while the bottom team was relegated to Division II. Beginning in , the top two teams from the 'A' group will be promoted to the championship, the bottom team will be exchanged with the group 'B' winner, and that group's last place team will go down to Division II.

Division III is now composed of one group of six, and if more than six nations register for this, the lowest level, then a qualification tournament will be held.

At the first tournament in , there were many differences from the modern game: Prior to that, body-checking was only allowed in the defending zone in international hockey.

The IIHF later described the rule change as "arguably the most substantial and dramatic rule changes in the history of international hockey" because it allowed for a more aggressive game.

Prior to that, the neutral zone trap had slowed the game down and reduced scoring. At the World Championships, teams were allowed to decide if they wanted to test the rule.

Although no team accepted the offer, the rule was adopted. The IIHF described it as "the most revolutionary rule change since allowing body-checking in all three zones in As of the regular NHL season , a linesman stops play due to icing using the hybrid icing method, [] instead of the former method, where a defending player other than the goaltender touched the puck before an attacking player was able to, [] in contrast to the IIHF rules that use "no-touch" icing, where play is stopped the moment the puck crosses the goal line.

The NHL, in addition to the minor and double minor penalties called in IIHF games, calls major penalties which are more dangerous infractions of the rules, such as fighting, and have a duration of five minutes.

Beginning with the —06 season , the NHL instituted several new rules. Some of them were already used by the IIHF, such as the shootout and making the two-line pass legal.

The system was first used at the World Championships. The World Championships have been open to all players, both professional and amateur, since If a player who has never played in an IIHF competition changes their citizenship, they must participate in national competitions in their new country for at least two consecutive years and have an international transfer card ITC.

A player can only do this once. As this tournament takes place during the same time period as the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs , NHL players generally only become available if their respective NHL team did not make the playoffs, or once they have been eliminated from Stanley Cup contention.

It is therefore common for several NHL players to join the World Championships while the tournament is already in progress.

The Championship division comprises the top sixteen hockey nations in the world. The 82nd championship was held from 4 to 20 May , in Copenhagen and Herning , Denmark.

The IIHF recognizes Bohemia , which joined in , and Czechoslovakia as the predecessors to the Czech Republic, which officially became a member in Left and right side wingers or defencemen are generally positioned as such, based on the side on which they carry their stick.

A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when shorthanded or on a power play.

The goaltender stands in a, usually blue, semi-circle called the crease in the defensive zone keeping pucks from going in.

Substitutions are permitted at any time during the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change.

When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly. A new NHL rule added in the —06 season prevents a team from changing their line after they ice the puck.

The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Players are permitted to " bodycheck " opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress.

The referees, linesmen and the outsides of the goal are "in play" and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced by either bouncing or colliding into them.

Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption.

When play is stopped, it is restarted with a " faceoff ". Two players "face" each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck.

Markings circles on the ice indicate the locations for the faceoff and guide the positioning of players. The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: A player is "offside" if he enters his opponent's zone before the puck itself.

Under many situations, a player may not "ice the puck", shoot the puck all the way across both the centre line and the opponent's goal line.

The puck goes "out of play" whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink onto the player benches, over the "glass," or onto the protective netting above the glass and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles.

It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

Under IIHF rules, each team may carry a maximum of 20 players and two goaltenders on their roster. NHL rules restrict the total number of players per game to 18, plus two goaltenders.

In the NHL, the players are usually divided into four lines of three forwards, and into three pairs of defencemen. On occasion, teams may elect to substitute an extra defenceman for a forward.

The seventh defenceman may play as a substitute defenceman, spend the game on the bench, or if a team chooses to play four lines then this seventh defenceman may see ice-time on the fourth line as a forward.

A professional game consists of three "periods" of twenty minutes, the clock running only when the puck is in play. The teams change ends after each period of play, including overtime.

Recreational leagues and children's leagues often play shorter games, generally with three shorter periods of play.

Various procedures are used if a tie occurs. In tournament play, as well as in the NHL playoffs, North Americans favour sudden death overtime , in which the teams continue to play twenty-minute periods until a goal is scored.

Up until the — season regular season NHL games were settled with a single five-minute sudden death period with five players plus a goalie per side, with both teams awarded one point in the standings in the event of a tie.

With a goal, the winning team would be awarded two points and the losing team none just as if they had lost in regulation. From — until —04, the National Hockey League decided ties by playing a single five-minute sudden death overtime period with each team having four skaters per side plus the goalie to "open up" the game.

In the event of a tie, each team would still receive one point in the standings but in the event of a victory the winning team would be awarded two points in the standings and the losing team one point.

The idea was to discourage teams from playing for a tie, since previously some teams might have preferred a tie and 1 point to risking a loss and zero points.

The only exception to this rule is if a team opts to pull their goalie in exchange for an extra skater during overtime and is subsequently scored upon an "empty net" goal , in which case the losing team receives no points for the overtime loss.

Since the —16 season, the single five-minute sudden death overtime session involves three skaters on each side. Since three skaters must always be on the ice in an NHL game, the consequences of penalties are slightly different from those during regulation play.

If a team is on a powerplay when overtime begins, that team will play with more than three skaters usually four, very rarely five until the expiration of the penalty.

Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.

Once the penalized team's penalty ends, the number of skaters on each side is adjusted accordingly, with the penalized team adding a skater in regulation and the non-penalized team subtracting a skater in overtime.

This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from 99—00 — 03—04 followed by a penalty shootout.

If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.

After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.

Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.

In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.

Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season. In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties.

If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added. In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.

In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off. Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team.

In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the " penalty box " and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.

Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.

A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player. This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking.

Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.

The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing "short-handed" while the opposing team is on a " power play ".

A two-minute minor penalty is often charged for lesser infractions such as " tripping ", " elbowing ", " roughing ", " high-sticking ", " delay of the game ", " too many players on the ice ", " boarding ", illegal equipment, " charging " leaping into an opponent or body-checking him after taking more than two strides , "holding", holding the stick grabbing an opponent's stick , "interference", " hooking ", " slashing ", "kneeing", "unsportsmanlike conduct" arguing a penalty call with referee, extremely vulgar or inappropriate verbal comments , "butt-ending" striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty , "spearing", or " cross-checking ".

As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for " diving ", where a player embellishes or simulates an offence.

More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.

These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.

Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a "minor" penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.

Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team. Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.

The foul of "boarding" defined as "check[ing] an opponent in such a manner that causes the opponent to be thrown violently in the boards" [57] is penalized either by a minor or major penalty at the discretion of the referee, based on the violent state of the hit.

A minor or major penalty for boarding is often assessed when a player checks an opponent from behind and into the boards.

Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short. Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the NHL usually result from fighting.

In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice.

This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.

In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.

However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.

In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.

In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent at the officials' discretion , or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties.

The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".

In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.

In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties. A " penalty shot " is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a " breakaway ".

A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.

A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.

Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one's hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offences.

The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one's defensive zone all penalized two minutes for delay of game.

In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.

This will result in a two-minute penalty against the goalie's team. Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.

An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass ".

Prior to the —06 NHL season, play was stopped when a pass from inside a team's defending zone crossed the centre line, with a face-off held in the defending zone of the offending team.

Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away.

The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.

Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.

The governing body for United States' amateur hockey has implemented many new rules to reduce the number of stick-on-body occurrences, as well as other detrimental and illegal facets of the game "zero tolerance".

In men's hockey, but not in women's, a player may use his hip or shoulder to hit another player if the player has the puck or is the last to have touched it.

This use of the hip and shoulder is called " body checking ". Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.

A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck. In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.

Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.

In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on.

However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.

In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.

There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs, [59] and one or two referees , [60] who call goals and all other penalties.

Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations. On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers.

The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system," that uses one referee and two linesmen. Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system.

This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes. With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system," where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.

Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.

In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.

Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Since men's ice hockey is a full contact sport, body checks are allowed so injuries are a common occurrence.

Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet cage worn if certain age or clear plastic visor can be worn , shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.

Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.

Goaltenders' equipment has continually become larger and larger, leading to fewer goals in each game and many official rule changes.

Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability. This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction.

In addition, they must be rigid and tough to protect the skater's feet from contact with other skaters, sticks, pucks, the boards, and the ice itself.

Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.

The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft. The curve itself has a big impact on its performance.

A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots. The flex of the stick also impacts the performance.

Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.

It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck.

Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game. Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury.

Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulders, hips, and hockey pucks all contribute. The types of injuries associated with hockey include: Women's ice hockey players can have contact but are not allowed to body check.

Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.

According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey]. Most of these injuries are caused by player contact, falls and contact with a puck, high stick and occasionally, a skate blade.

Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".

Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".

A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.

The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.

Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.

This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention. Studies show that, ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare, but occur all too much in a variety of sports.

An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.

Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck. The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.

Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.

Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.

Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.

NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.

Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.

A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.

A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions.

Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice. Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.

A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.

However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone.

Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i. Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.

The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.

Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.

Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.

A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.

A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.

Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.

At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.

A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit.

The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.

Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.

After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.

In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.

Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.

The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.

Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.

Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.

There are two major women's hockey leagues, the National Women's Hockey League with teams in the Northeastern United States which is a professional league and the Canadian Women's Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States, which is semi-professional and is developing toward becoming a fully professional league.

The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada. Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams.

As of , there are six teams, although the teams themselves have changed. The league consists of five teams, though it had four teams for the league's first three seasons.

The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world. The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League.

The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.

A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.

This created a 21 team league. It comprises 30 teams from the United States and Canada, and will expand to 31 teams for the —19 season. The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level.

In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.

Players in this league are strictly amateur, so that they may play college hockey if they wish. The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.

The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states. The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia.

The number of teams has since increased to 28 from eight different countries. This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan.

The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia. It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia.

Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues. Beginning in the —15 season, the Champions Hockey League was launched, a league consisting of first-tier teams from several European countries, running parallel to the teams' domestic leagues.

The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship. The competition is a direct successor to the European Trophy and is related to the —09 tournament of the same name.

There are also several annual tournaments for clubs, held outside of league play. One of the oldest international ice hockey competition for clubs is the Spengler Cup , held every year in Davos , Switzerland, between Christmas and New Year's Day.

The Memorial Cup , a competition for junior-level age 20 and under clubs is held annually from a pool of junior championship teams in Canada and the United States.

The World Junior Club Cup is an annual tournament of junior ice hockey clubs representing each of the top junior leagues.

Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since and was played at the summer games in Hockey is Canada's national winter sport, and Canadians are extremely passionate about the game.

The nation has traditionally done very well at the Olympic games, winning 6 of the first 7 gold medals. However, by its amateur club teams and national teams could not compete with the teams of government-supported players from the Soviet Union.

The USSR won all but two gold medals from to The United States won their first gold medal in On the way to winning the gold medal at the Lake Placid Olympics amateur US college players defeated the heavily favoured Soviet squad—an event known as the " Miracle on Ice " in the United States.

Restrictions on professional players were fully dropped at the games in Calgary.

Ties no longer occur in the NHL. Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulders, hips, and hockey pucks all contribute. Ice hockey, partially because of its popularity as a major professional sport, has been a source of inspiration for numerous films, television episodes and songs Beste Spielothek in Radegast finden North American popular culture. This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan. International Ice Hockey Federation. The match was won by the Oxford Dark Blues, 6—0; [36] [37] the first photographs and team lists date from In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without achtelfinale gegner deutschland team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice. Medals were awarded based on the final standings of the teams in the medal round. The Globe and Mail. The rights to Beste Spielothek in Jagleck finden the tournament were awarded to Canada for the first time—in Montreal and Winnipeg. Retrieved June 2, At the World ChampionshipsRussia won its first mercur online casino as an independent nation and the Penny slot machines with best odds Republic won its first medal bronze.

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